Ho-Chi-Minh mausoleum in Hanoi
About us | Quiénes somos |
A propos de nous | Über uns |
Mayors from Asia
Mayors from The Americas
Mayors from Europe
Local government in The Americas:
| Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Canada | Caribbean | Chile | Mexico | Peru | USA | Venezuela |
Local government in Europe:
| Albania | Cyprus | France | Germany | Gibralta | Greece | Iceland | Ireland | Italy | Kosovo | Malta | Portugal | Russia | Spain | UK1 | UK2 |
Local government in Asia and Australia
| Australia | China | India | Indonesia | Japan | Malaysia | Philippines | Singapore | South East Asia | South Korea | Thailand | Turkey |
Local government in Africa
| South Africa |
Federated local government
Multi-tier local government
Local democracy Malaysia
Karachi local government system
Local government mergers
City Mayors reports news from towns and cities around the world. Worldwide | Elections | North America | Latin America | Europe | Asia | Africa | Events |
Mayors from The Americas, Europe. Asia, Australia and Africa are competing for the annual World Mayor Award. More
City Mayors ranks the world’s largest as well as richest cities and urban areas. It also ranks the cities in individual countries, and provides a list of the capital cities of some 200 sovereign countries. More
City Mayors reports political events, analyses the issues and depicts the main players. More
City Mayors describes and explains the structures and workings of local government in Europe, The Americas, Asia, Australia and Africa. More
City Mayors profiles city leaders from around the world and questions them about their achievements, policies and aims. More
City Mayors deals with economic and investment issues affecting towns and cities. More
City Mayors reports on how business developments impact on cities and examines cooperation between cities and the private sector. More
City Mayors describes and explains financial issues affecting local government. More
City Mayors lists and features urban events, conferences and conventions aimed at urban decision makers and those with an interst in cities worldwide. More
City Mayors reports urban environmental developments and examines the challenges faced by cities worldwide. More
City Mayors reports on and discusses urban development issues in developed and developing countries. More
City Mayors reports on developments in urban society and behaviour and reviews relevant research. More
City Mayors deals with urban transport issues in developed and developing countries and features the world’s greatest metro systems. More
City Mayors examines education issues and policies affecting children and adults in urban areas. More
City Mayors investigates health issues affecting urban areas with an emphasis on health in cities in developing countries. More
City Mayors examines the importance of urban tourism to city economies. More
City Mayors examines the contributions history and culture make to urban society and environment. More
City Mayors describes the history, architecture and politics of the greatest city halls in the world. More
City Mayors invites readers to write short stories about people in cities around the world. More
City Mayors questions those who govern the world’s cities and talks to men and women who contribute to urban society and environment. More
City Mayors profiles national and international organisations representing cities as well as those dealing with urban issues. More
City Mayors reports on major national and international sporting events and their impact on cities. More
City Mayors lists cities and city organisations, profiles individual mayors and provides information on hundreds of urban events. More
Local government in South East Asia
South East Asian countries eradicate influence of
dominant neighbours and former colonial powers
By Andrew Stevens, Deputy Editor
12 February 2006: Since the early nineties, South East Asian countries have been developing their own political and economic identities. Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam have all opened their economies to international market forces, even though the latter two countries are still governed by communist parties. Vietnam has joined the club of ‘tiger economies’ and is much fêted by western countries including its former foe, the United States.
| Cambodia | Laos | Vietnam |
Though Cambodia’s recent history is synonymous with the state-sponsored genocide of Pol Pot’s regime following French vacation of its colonial presence in the region in 1953, the country once dominated the Indochinese peninsula as the Khmer Empire. Today it is a constitutional monarchy with a liberal democratic parliamentary system of government in place since 1993. At the sub-national level it is governed by 20 provinces and four municipalities.
Upon the restoration of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 1993, the King’s powers were denoted as strictly ceremonial. Furthermore, succession to the throne is not regarded as a hereditary right, with a Council of the Throne convened from national political and religious figures on the monarch’s death to appoint a successor from within the royal family. However, King Sihanouk’s gravitas derived from his influence of guiding the nation back into liberal democracy saw his power take hold over institutions and mediation abilities strengthened. Sihanouk abdicated in 2004 in favour of his son, the King Sihamoni, whose youth and lack of grounding in Cambodian affairs of state have seen the monarchy’s influence curbed substantially. Sihanouk retains an official status within Cambodia’s constitution however, leading some to remark that he remains de facto head of state. Cambodia’s legislature is constituted of a bicameral parliament, the 123 seat National Assembly (wholly elected) and the 61 member Senate (mostly elected, part appointed). The National Assembly enjoys primacy in legislative affairs.
The country is divided into 20 provinces (or khet), with four designated municipalities of provincial competence for major metropolitan areas (krong). Provinces are further divided into districts (krok) and then into communes (khum). In the metropolitan municipalities, subdivisions are known as sections (khan), which are further divided into quarters (sangkat). Islands are known as koh. The capital Phnom Penh is governed by one of the four municipalities and has 7 krok and 76 khum.
The Lao People’s Democratic Republic is one the world’s remaining nominally Communist regimes, bordered by the People’s Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, as well as the Kingdoms of Cambodia and Thailand. As with Cambodia and Vietnam, the withdrawal of the French colonial regime after the second world war plunged the country into drawn-out civil war and eventual victory by Communist insurgents. The Lao People’s Republic was proclaimed following the collapse of the Kingdom of Laos in 1975 and remains in place today, though some economic liberalisation has taken place since the 1980s and membership of ASEAN was obtained in 1997.
Laos remains a one party state, with only the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party permitted to organise and contest elections. Under the 1991 constitution, legislative affairs are governed by the unicameral National Assembly, which although elected by universal suffrage is bound by government executive decrees.
The country is divided, for administrative purposes, into 16 provinces (khoueng), one prefecture (khampheng nakhon) and one special administrative area (khetphiset). As per neighbouring countries, the provinces are further divided into districts (muang) and villages (bann). The prefecture was created in 1989 by the secession of the ancient capital Vientiane from the province also bearing its name, while the khetphiset was carved out of remaining neighbouring portions of that province in 1994. Vientiane is further divided into five muang.
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam emerged as the unified state in 1976 following the end of the United States’ military campaign to prevent North Vietnam’s invasion of its southern counterpart. As with other Communist regimes in the former French Indochina, the People’s Republic of China retains strong links with the regime, which has introduced some economic reforms but remains a one party state governed by the Communist Party of Vietnam.
The most recent constitution, approved in 1992, proclaims Vietnam as a one party state with the Communist Party supreme in national affairs. In recent years the supremacy of the executive branch, vested in the president as political and military figurehead, has been called into question by the unicameral National Assembly, which consists of 450 seats elected to by universal suffrage.
Vietnam is sub-divided into 59 provinces (tinh) and five municipalities of provincial competence (thanh pho). The provinces are each governed by a People’s Council, elected to from vetted party candidates, but in reality this body is subordinate to both the appointed executive branch and the direction of national government. The capital Ho Chi Minh City is one of the five unitary municipalities. Formed from the old capital Saigon with the addition of some neighbouring districts of other provinces, it is headed by the People’s Council Chairman, who in theory acts as the first citizen, though this role is actually played out by the city’s Communist Party Committee Secretary. The city is further divided into a complex array of units which, depending on rural or urban character, are denoted by either an old name or simply a number.
• Poverty is a crime against humanity
• Support mayors who fight poverty
• Nominate the best for the 2020 World Mayor Prize